This article’s lead section does not adequately summarize key points of 5 programming languages to learn in 2018 contents. For a detailed timeline of events, see Timeline of programming languages.
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The first high-level programming language was Plankalkül, created by Konrad Zuse between 1942 and 1945. When FORTRAN was first introduced it was treated with suspicion because of the belief that programs compiled from high-level language would be less efficient than those written directly in machine code. The first computer codes were specialized for their applications: e. Alonzo Church was able to express the lambda calculus in a formulaic way and the Turing machine was an abstraction of the operation of a tape-marking machine.