Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the fixture a-1 johnny portable toilets. For the common flush toilet, see flush toilet.
Toilets come in various shapes and forms around the world, including for flush toilets used by sitting or squatting, and dry toilets like pit latrines. A toilet is a piece of hardware used for the collection or disposal of human urine and feces. In private homes, the toilet, sink, bath, or shower may be in the same room. Many poor households in developing countries use very basic, and often unhygienic toilets, for example simple pit latrines and bucket toilets which are usually placed in outhouses. The number of different types of toilets used on a worldwide level is large. People use different toilet types based on the country that they are in.
In developing countries, access to toilets is also related to people’s socio-economic status. Poor people in low-income countries often have no toilets at all and resort to open defecation instead. The water in the toilet bowl is connected to a pipe shaped like an upside-down U. One side of the U channel is arranged as a siphon tube longer than the water in the bowl is high. The siphon tube connects to the drain. The bottom of the drain pipe limits the height of the water in the bowl before it flows down the drain.
The water in the bowl acts as a barrier to sewer gas entering the building. The amount of water used by conventional flush toilets usually makes up a significant portion of personal daily water usage. However, modern low flush toilet designs allow the use of much less water per flush. Dual flush toilets allow the user to select between a flush for urine or feces, saving a significant amount of water over conventional units. Another variant is the pour-flush toilet. This type of flush toilet has no cistern, but is flushed manually with a few litres of a small bucket.
This type of toilet is common in many Asian countries. Flush toilets on ships are typically flushed with seawater. Others include medical monitoring features such as urine and stool analysis and the checking of blood pressure, temperature, and blood sugar. Astronauts on the International Space Station use a space toilet with urine diversion which can recover potable water. A vacuum toilet is a flush toilet that requires very little flushing water and is connected to a vacuum sewer system. These types of toilets do not use water as an odor seal or to move excreta along. Dry toilets use no water for flushing.
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They also do not produce wastewater. Some of these devices are high-tech but many are quite basic. A simple pit latrine uses no water seal and collects human excreta in a pit or trench. The excreta drop directly into the pit via a drop hole. This type of toilet can range from a simple slit trench to more elaborate systems with seating or squatting pans and ventilation systems. In developed countries they are associated with camping and wilderness areas.
The pit or trench can be dug large enough so that the pit can be used for many years before it fills up. When the pit becomes full, it may be emptied or the hole covered with earth and the pit latrine relocated. A vault toilet is distinguished from a pit latrine because the waste accumulates in the vault instead of seeping into the underlying soil. Urine diversion toilets have two compartments, one for urine and one for feces.
A urine-diverting dry toilet uses no water for flushing, and keeps urine and feces separate. It can be linked to systems which reuse excreta as a fertilizer. The portable toilet is used on construction sites, film locations, and large outdoor gatherings where there are no other facilities. They are typically self-contained units that are made to be easily moved. Most portable toilets are unisex single units with privacy ensured by a simple lock on the door.
A bucket toilet, also known as a honey bucket, is a very simple type of portable toilet. Chemical toilets collect human excreta in a holding tank and use chemicals to minimize odors. They do not require a connection to a water supply and are used in a variety of situations. Aircraft lavatories and passenger train toilets were in the past often designed as chemical toilets but are nowadays more likely to be vacuum toilets. Toilets can be designed to be used either in a sitting or in a squatting posture.
Sitting toilets are often referred to as “western-style toilets”. Sitting toilets are more convenient than squat toilets for people with disabilities and the elderly. Squatting toilets are the norm in many Asian and African countries, and are common in most Muslim countries. They are also occasionally be found in some European and South American countries. In 1976, squatting toilets were said to be used by the majority of the world’s population. There are cultural differences in socially accepted and preferred voiding positions for urination around the world: in the Middle East and Asia, the squatting position is more prevalent, while in the Western world the standing and sitting position are more common.
In the Western world, the most common method of cleaning the anal area after defecation is by toilet paper or sometimes by using a bidet. This can be useful for the elderly or people with disabilities. An accessible toilet is designed to accommodate people with physical disabilities, such as age related limited mobility or inability to walk due to impairments. A public toilet is accessible to the general public.