Overview of signal transduction pathways involved a result of programmed cell death apoptosis. Cell death is the event of a biological cell ceasing to carry out its functions.
This may be the result of the natural process of old cells dying and being replaced by new ones, or may result from such factors as disease, localized injury, or the death of the organism of which the cells are part. Apoptosis or Type I cell-death, and autophagy or Type II cell-death are both forms of programmed cell death, while necrosis is a non-physiological process that occurs as a result of infection or injury. Mitotic catastrophe is a mode of cell death that is due to premature or inappropriate entry of cells into mitosis. It is the most common mode of cell death in cancer cells exposed to ionizing radiation and many other anti-cancer treatments. Autophagy is cytoplasmic, characterized by the formation of large vacuoles that eat away organelles in a specific sequence prior to the destruction of the nucleus.
Other pathways of programmed cell death have been discovered. Plant cells undergo particular processes of PCD similar to autophagic cell death. However, some common features of PCD are highly conserved in both plants and metazoa. Ischemic cell death, or oncosis, is a form of accidental, or passive cell death that is often considered a lethal injury.
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Pyroptosis is a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death that occurs most frequently upon infection with intracellular pathogens and is likely to form part of the antimicrobial response in myeloid cells. The term “cell necrobiology” has been used to describe the life processes associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular changes which predispose, precede, and accompany cell death, as well as the consequences and tissue response to cell death. The word is derived from the Greek νεκρό meaning “death”, βìο meaning “life”, and λόγος meaning “the study of”. Bacterial Programmed Cell Death and Multicellular Behavior in Bacteria”. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Histology and Cell Biology – An Introduction to Pathology.
Mitotic Catastrophe in Apoptosis, Senescence, and Cancer. Do all programmed cell deaths occur via apoptosis? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Ferroptosis: An Iron-Dependent Form of Nonapoptotic Cell Death”. Zhang J, Xu X, Liu Y. Activation-Induced Cell Death in T Cells and Autoimmunity. Immunogenic cell death, DAMPs and anticancer therapeutics: an emerging amalgamation”.
Darzynkiewicz Z, Juan G, Li X, Gorczyca W, Murakami T, Traganos F. Real-time flow cytometry for the kinetic analysis of oncosis. For the protein, see Programmed cell death protein 1. Necrosis is the death of a cell caused by external factors such as trauma or infection and occurs in several different forms. Recently a form of programmed necrosis, called necroptosis, has been recognized as an alternative form of programmed cell death.
Williams in 1964 in relation to insect tissue development, around eight years before “apoptosis” was coined. Since then, PCD has become the more general of these two terms. The first insight into the mechanism came from studying BCL2, the product of a putative oncogene activated by chromosome translocations often found in follicular lymphoma. PCD has been the subject of increasing attention and research efforts. Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in apoptosis. A critical regulator of autophagy induction is the kinase mTOR, which when activated, suppresses autophagy and when not activated promotes it. Autophagy and apoptosis are connected both positively and negatively, and extensive crosstalk exists between the two.