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A junction for road vehicles and pedestrians controlled by traffic lights in the UK. The various vehicle and pedestrian movements are separated in either time or space for safety and efficiency. The normal function of traffic lights requires more than slight control and coordination to ensure that traffic and pedestrians move as smoothly, and safely as possible. A variety of different control systems are used to accomplish this, ranging from simple clockwork mechanisms to sophisticated computerized control and coordination systems that self-adjust to minimize delay to people using the road.
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The first automated system for controlling traffic signals was developed by inventor Josef Kates, and was used in Toronto in 1954. Moving phases are shown in green and stopped phases are shown in red. Traffic controllers use the concept of phases, which are directions of movement grouped together. For instance, a simple T-junction may have three vehicle movement phases, one for each arm of the junction.
There may be additional phases for other movements such as pedestrians, cyclists, bus lanes or tramways. A stage is a group of non-conflicting phases which move at the same time. A traffic signal is typically controlled by a controller mounted inside a cabinet. In the United States, controllers are standardized by the NEMA, which sets standards for connectors, operating limits, and intervals.
The TS-1 standard was introduced in 1976 for the first generation of solid-state controllers. The CMU monitors the outputs of the controller, and if a fault is detected, the CMU uses the flash transfer relays to put the intersection to FLASH, with all red lights flashing, rather than displaying a potentially hazardous combination of signals. United States by the Institute of Transportation Engineers. Battery backups installed in a separate cabinet from the traffic controller cabinet on the top. Traffic lights must be instructed when to change stage and they are usually coordinated so that the stage changes occur in some relationship to other nearby signals or to the press of a pedestrian button or to the action of a timer or a number of other inputs.