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A computer program is a collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer. A computer requires programs to function. A computer program is usually written by a computer programmer in a programming language. A collection of computer programs, libraries, and related data are referred to as software.
The earliest programmable machines preceded the invention of the digital computer. In 1801, Joseph-Marie Jacquard devised a loom that would weave a pattern by following a series of perforated cards. In 1837, Charles Babbage was inspired by Jacquard’s loom to attempt to build the Analytical Engine. The names of the components of the calculating device were borrowed from the textile industry. In the textile industry, yarn was brought from the store to be milled.
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43, Ada Lovelace translated the memoir of Italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea. The memoir covered the Analytical Engine. The translation contained Note G which completely detailed a method for calculating Bernoulli numbers using the Analytical Engine. In 1936, Alan Turing introduced the Universal Turing machine—a theoretical device that can model every computation that can be performed on a Turing complete computing machine. Germany, was a digital and programmable computer.
A digital computer uses electricity as the calculating component. Turing complete, general-purpose computer that used 17,468 vacuum tubes to create the circuits. Computers manufactured until the 1970s had front-panel switches for programming. The computer program was written on paper for reference.
After setting the configuration, an execute button was pressed. In 1961, the Burroughs B5000 was built specifically to be programmed in the ALGOL 60 language. The hardware featured circuits to ease the compile phase. 360 was a line of six computers each having the same instruction set architecture. The Model 30 was the smallest and least expensive. Customers could upgrade and retain the same application software. Computer programming is the process of writing or editing source code.
Editing source code involves testing, analyzing, refining, and sometimes coordinating with other programmers on a jointly developed program. The sometimes lengthy process of computer programming is usually referred to as software development. The term software engineering is becoming popular as the process is seen as an engineering discipline. Computer programs can be categorized by the programming language paradigm used to produce them. Two of the main paradigms are imperative and declarative. One criticism of imperative languages is the side effect of an assignment statement on a class of variables called non-local variables.