An electric motor is an electrical della 4kg portable washing machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Electric motors may be classified by considerations such as power source type, internal construction, application and type of motion output.
In certain applications, such as in regenerative braking with traction motors, electric motors can be used in reverse as generators to recover energy that might otherwise be lost as heat and friction. Cutaway view through stator of induction motor. The first electric motors were simple electrostatic devices described in experiments by Scottish monk Andrew Gordon and American experimenter Benjamin Franklin in the 1740s. The historic motor still works perfectly today. In 1827, Hungarian physicist Ányos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic coils. After many other more or less successful attempts with relatively weak rotating and reciprocating apparatus Prussian Moritz von Jacobi created the first real rotating electric motor in May 1834.
Did not find what they wanted? Try here
It developed remarkable mechanical output power. His motor set a world record, which Jacobi improved four years later in September 1838. British scientist William Sturgeon in 1832. Following Sturgeon’s work, a commutator-type direct-current electric motor was built by American inventor Thomas Davenport, which he patented in 1837. In 1855, Jedlik built a device using similar principles to those used in his electromagnetic self-rotors that was capable of useful work.
He built a model electric vehicle that same year. A major turning point came in 1864, when Antonio Pacinotti first described the ring armature. This featured symmetrically-grouped coils closed upon themselves and connected to the bars of a commutator, the brushes of which delivered practically non-fluctuating current. In 1886, Frank Julian Sprague invented the first practical DC motor, a non-sparking device that maintained relatively constant speed under variable loads. Industrial processes were no longer limited by power transmission using line shafts, belts, compressed air or hydraulic pressure. Instead, every machine could be equipped with its own power source, providing easy control at the point of use, and improving power transmission efficiency.
Electric motors applied in agriculture eliminated human and animal muscle power from such tasks as handling grain or pumping water. One of the patents Tesla filed in 1887, however, also described a shorted-winding-rotor induction motor. George Westinghouse promptly bought Tesla’s patents, employed Tesla to develop them, and assigned C. Tesla left for other pursuits in 1889. Steadfast in his promotion of three-phase development, Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky invented the three-phase cage-rotor induction motor in 1889 and the three-limb transformer in 1890. This type of motor is now used for the vast majority of commercial applications. The General Electric Company began developing three-phase induction motors in 1891.
By 1896, General Electric and Westinghouse signed a cross-licensing agreement for the bar-winding-rotor design, later called the squirrel-cage rotor. In an electric motor, the moving part is the rotor, which turns the shaft to deliver the mechanical power. The rotor usually has conductors laid into it that carry currents, which interact with the magnetic field of the stator to generate the forces that turn the shaft. Alternatively, some rotors carry permanent magnets, and the stator holds the conductors. The rotor is supported by bearings, which allow the rotor to turn on its axis.