Hardware and software components of computer network pdf

Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about physical ports. This article does not hardware and software components of computer network pdf any sources. In computer hardware, a port serves as an interface between the computer and other computers or peripheral devices. In computer terms, a port generally refers to the part of a computing device available for connection to peripherals such as input and output devices.

Bent pins are easier to replace on a cable than on a connector attached to a computer, so it was common to use connectors for the fixed side of an interface. Physically identical connectors may be used for widely different standards, especially on older personal computer systems, or systems not generally designed according to the current Microsoft Windows compatibility guides. Parallel ports send multiple bits at the same time over several sets of wires. After ports are connected, they typically require handshaking, where transfer type, transfer rate, and other necessary information is shared before data are sent. Hot-swappable ports can be connected while equipment is running.

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Almost all ports on personal computers are hot-swappable. Plug-and-play ports are designed so that the connected devices automatically start handshaking as soon as the hot-swapping is done. Auto-detect or auto-detection ports are usually plug-and-play, but they offer another type of convenience. An auto-detect port may automatically determine what kind of device has been attached, but it also determines what purpose the port itself should have. As of 2006, manufacturers have nearly standardized colors associated with ports on personal computers, although there are no guarantees. The two extra conductors in the 6-pin connection carry electrical power.

This is why a self-powered device such as a camcorder often connects with a cable that is 4-pins on the camera side and 6-pins on the computer side, the two power conductors simply being ignored. Optical connections are usually a polished glass or plastic interface, possibly with an oil that lessens refraction between the two interface surfaces. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Computer connectors. Jump to navigation Jump to search “Computer system” redirects here. A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices.

Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known use of the word “computer” was in 1613 in a book called The Yong Mans Gleanings by English writer Richard Braithwait: “I haue read the truest computer of Times, and the best Arithmetician that euer breathed, and he reduceth thy dayes into a short number. This usage of the term referred to a human computer, a person who carried out calculations or computations. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, mostly using one-to-one correspondence with fingers.

The earliest counting device was probably a form of tally stick. The abacus was initially used for arithmetic tasks. The Roman abacus was developed from devices used in Babylonia as early as 2400 BC. Since then, many other forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented. The ancient Greek-designed Antikythera mechanism, dating between 150 and 100 BC, is the world’s oldest analog computer.