Enter the characters you see below Introduction about programming languages, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. This article’s lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents.
For a detailed timeline of events, see Timeline of programming languages. The first high-level programming language was Plankalkül, created by Konrad Zuse between 1942 and 1945. When FORTRAN was first introduced it was treated with suspicion because of the belief that programs compiled from high-level language would be less efficient than those written directly in machine code. The first computer codes were specialized for their applications: e.
Alonzo Church was able to express the lambda calculus in a formulaic way and the Turing machine was an abstraction of the operation of a tape-marking machine. To some people, some degree of expressive power and human-readability is required before the status of “programming language” is granted. Jacquard Looms and Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine both had simple, extremely limited languages for describing the actions that these machines should perform. In the 1940s, the first recognizably modern electrically powered computers were created. The limited speed and memory capacity forced programmers to write hand tuned assembly language programs.
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It was eventually realized that programming in assembly language required a great deal of intellectual effort. The first programming languages designed to communicate instructions to a computer were written in the 1950s. John Mauchly’s Short Code, proposed in 1949, was one of the first high-level languages ever developed for an electronic computer. At the University of Manchester, Alick Glennie developed Autocode in the early 1950s, with the second iteration developed for the Mark 1 by R. Brooker in 1954, known as the “Mark 1 Autocode”. Another early programming language was devised by Grace Hopper in the US, called FLOW-MATIC. It was developed for the UNIVAC I at Remington Rand during the period from 1955 until 1959.
Nearly all subsequent programming languages have used a variant of BNF to describe the context-free portion of their syntax. Algol 60 was particularly influential in the design of later languages, some of which soon became more popular. The Burroughs large systems were designed to be programmed in an extended subset of Algol. Van Wijngaarden grammar, a formalism designed specifically for this purpose. The period from the late 1960s to the late 1970s brought a major flowering of programming languages. Simula, invented in the late 1960s by Nygaard and Dahl as a superset of Algol 60, was the first language designed to support object-oriented programming. C, an early systems programming language, was developed by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson at Bell Labs between 1969 and 1973.