Jump multimedia definition in computer networks navigation Jump to search “Datacom” redirects here. A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes. In the late 1950s, early networks of computers included the U.
Licklider sent a memorandum to office colleagues discussing the concept of the “Intergalactic Computer Network”, a computer network intended to allow general communications among computer users. In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth College developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for distributed users of large computer systems. Throughout the 1960s, Paul Baran, and Donald Davies independently developed the concept of packet switching to transfer information between computers over a network. In 1965, Western Electric introduced the first widely used telephone switch that implemented true computer control.
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In 1966, Thomas Marill and Lawrence G. In 1972, commercial services using X. In 1973, the French CYCLADES network was the first to make the hosts responsible for the reliable delivery of data, rather than this being a centralized service of the network itself. In 1976, John Murphy of Datapoint Corporation created ARCNET, a token-passing network first used to share storage devices.
By 1998, Ethernet supported transmission speeds of a Gigabit. A computer network facilitates interpersonal communications allowing users to communicate efficiently and easily via various means: email, instant messaging, online chat, telephone, video telephone calls, and video conferencing. A network allows sharing of network and computing resources. A computer network may be used by security hackers to deploy computer viruses or computer worms on devices connected to the network, or to prevent these devices from accessing the network via a denial-of-service attack. Computer communication links that do not support packets, such as traditional point-to-point telecommunication links, simply transmit data as a bit stream.
However, most information in computer networks is carried in packets. The control information provides data the network needs to deliver the user data, for example: source and destination network addresses, error detection codes, and sequencing information. With packets, the bandwidth of the transmission medium can be better shared among users than if the network were circuit switched. When one user is not sending packets, the link can be filled with packets from other users, and so the cost can be shared, with relatively little interference, provided the link isn’t overused. The physical layout of a network is usually less important than the topology that connects network nodes. Most diagrams that describe a physical network are therefore topological, rather than geographic.