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This article relies too much on references to primary sources. Wi-Fi Alliance interoperability certification, based on the IEEE 802. The Wi-Fi Alliance has added Power Save Certification to the WMM specification. Power Save uses mechanisms from 802. Those that require battery or recharging such as smart phones. AP releases previously buffered data stored in each of its queues. 11e: Quality of Service enhancements for Wi-Fi standard 802.
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There might be a discussion about this on the talk page. IMS uses IETF protocols wherever possible, e. According to the 3GPP, IMS is not intended to standardize applications, but rather to aid the access of multimedia and voice applications from wireless and wireline terminals, i. Alternative and overlapping technologies for access and provisioning of services across wired and wireless networks include combinations of Generic Access Network, softswitches and “naked” SIP. IMS defined by an industry forum called 3G. 3G mobile phone systems in UMTS networks. 3GPP IMS, adding support for CDMA2000.
3GPP release 7 added support for fixed networks by working together with TISPAN release R1. SAE, multimedia session continuity, enhanced emergency sessions and IMS centralized services. 3GPP release 11 added USSD simulation service, network-provided location information for IMS, SMS submit and delivery without MSISDN in IMS, and overload control. Each of the functions in the diagram is explained below. The IP multimedia core network subsystem is a collection of different functions, linked by standardized interfaces, which grouped form one IMS administrative network. An implementer is free to combine two functions in one node, or to split a single function into two or more nodes. The user can connect to IMS in various ways, most of which use the standard IP.
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IMS network entities that actually handle calls. Registration, Authorization, Administration, and Accounting purposes. Every IMS user shall have one IMPI. There can be multiple IMPU per IMPI.
P-GRUU reveal the IMPU and are very long lived. A wildcarded Public User Identity expresses a set of IMPU grouped together. The HSS subscriber database contains the IMPU, IMPI, IMSI, MSISDN, subscriber service profiles, service triggers, and other information. SIP signaling packets in the IMS. SIP proxy that is the first point of contact for the IMS terminal.
IMS terminal must ignore any other unencrypted signaling. It provides subscriber authentication and may establish an IPsec or TLS security association with the IMS terminal. This prevents spoofing attacks and replay attacks and protects the privacy of the subscriber. It is used for policy control, bandwidth management, etc. The PDF can also be a separate function.
SIP function located at the edge of an administrative domain. It is always located in the home network. All necessary subscriber profile information is loaded from the HSS. S-CSCFs in the network for load distribution and high availability reasons. It’s the HSS that assigns the S-CSCF to a user, when it’s queried by the I-CSCF. As user identities, PSI takes the form of either a SIP or Tel URI.
PSI represents a collection of PSIs. The MRFP is a media plane node used to mix, source or process media stream s. It can also manage access right to shared resources. MRF information and supplying of appropriate MRF information to consuming entities such as the AS. In-Line Mode: AS sends a SIP INVITE to the MRB. It includes routing functionality based on telephone numbers. BICC and interfaces with the SGW over SCTP.
CS network, by converting between RTP and PCM. Media Resources are those components that operate on the media plane and are under the control of IMS core functions. The physical and logical linking of carriers and service providers based on simple IP connectivity irrespective of the levels of interoperability. An NGN interconnection mode can be direct or indirect. Direct interconnection refers to the interconnection between two network domains without any intermediate network domain.