Programming languages and their uses

This is a list of notable programming languages, grouped by type. Since there is programming languages and their uses overarching classification scheme for programming languages, in many cases, a language will be listed under multiple headings. An authoring language is a programming language used to create tutorials, websites, and other interactive computer programs.

A constraint programming language is a declarative programming language where relationships between variables are expressed as constraints. Unix shell, written by Stephen R. Windows batch file language as understood by COMMAND. These are languages typically processed by compilers, though theoretically any language can be compiled or interpreted.

Earlier versions compiled directly to a native runtime. NET versions compile into CIL that is just-in-time compiled into a native image at runtime. Message passing languages provide language constructs for concurrency. Frequently used for reacting to discrete events or for processing streams of data.

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Data-oriented languages provide powerful ways of searching and manipulating the relations that have been described as entity relationship tables which map one set of things into other sets. Declarative languages express the logic of a computation without describing its control flow in detail. Source embeddable languages embed small pieces of executable code inside a piece of free-form text, often a web page. Client-side embedded languages are limited by the abilities of the browser or intended client. The above examples are particularly dedicated to this purpose. A wide variety of dynamic or scripting languages can be embedded in compiled executable code.

Basically, object code for the language’s interpreter needs to be linked into the executable. Source code fragments for the embedded language can then be passed to an evaluation function as strings. Application control languages can be implemented this way, if the source code is input by the user. Languages developed primarily for the purpose of teaching and learning of programming. An esoteric programming language is a programming language designed as a test of the boundaries of computer programming language design, as a proof of concept, or as a joke. Extension programming languages are languages embedded into another program and used to harness its features in extension scripts.

Fourth-generation programming languages are high-level languages built around database systems. They are generally used in commercial environments. Functional programming languages define programs and subroutines as mathematical functions and treat them as first-class. Many so-called functional languages are “impure”, containing imperative features. Many functional languages are tied to mathematical calculation tools. In electronics, a Hardware description language or HDL is a specialized computer language used to describe the structure, design and operation of electronic circuits, and most commonly, digital logic circuits.

The two most widely used and well-supported HDL varieties used in industry are Verilog and VHDL. Imperative programming languages may be multi-paradigm and appear in other classifications. Interactive mode languages act as a kind of shell: expressions or statements can be entered one at a time, and the result of their evaluation is seen immediately. Interpreted languages are programming languages in which programs may be executed from source code form, by an interpreter. Compiled on the fly to machine code, but a transpiler Julia2C is also available. Lisp systems are compilers, but many of them still provide an interpreter if needed. Iterative languages are built around or offering generators.