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Access to this page has been denied because we believe you are using automation tools to browse the website. Project management is the practice of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria at the specified time. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals within the given constraints. This information is usually described in project documentation, created at the beginning of the development process.
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As a discipline, project management developed from several fields of application including civil construction, engineering, and heavy defense activity. The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern project management era where core engineering fields come together to work as one. Project management became recognized as a distinct discipline arising from the management discipline with engineering model. PERT and CPM are very similar in their approach but still present some differences.
Because of this core difference, CPM and PERT are used in different contexts. At the same time, as project-scheduling models were being developed, technology for project cost estimating, cost management and engineering economics was evolving, with pioneering work by Hans Lang and others. There are a number of approaches to organizing and completing project activities, including: phased, lean, iterative, and incremental. Plan: The planning and forecasting activities. Process: The overall approach to all activities and project governance. People: Including dynamics of how they collaborate and communicate.
Power: Lines of authority, decision-makers, organograms, policies for implementation and the like. Regardless of the methodology employed, careful consideration must be given to the overall project objectives, timeline, and cost, as well as the roles and responsibilities of all participants and stakeholders. Many industries use variations of these project stages and it is not uncommon for the stages to be renamed in order to better suit the organization. While the phased approach works well for small, well-defined projects, it often results in challenge or failure on larger projects, or those that are more complex or have more ambiguities, issues and risk. Lean project management uses the principles from lean manufacturing to focus on delivering value with less waste and reduced time. In critical studies of project management it has been noted that phased approaches are not well suited for projects which are large-scale and multi-company, with undefined, ambiguous, or fast-changing requirements, or those with high degrees of risk, dependency, and fast-changing technologies.