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As a matter of fact, almost any circuit representation in RTL or Behavioural Description is a multi-level representation. An early system that was used to design multilevel circuits was LSS from IBM. Logic operations usually consist of boolean AND, OR, XOR and NAND operations, and are the most basic forms of operations in an electronic circuit. Arithmetic operations are usually implemented with the use of logic operators. With a goal of increasing designer productivity, research efforts on the synthesis of circuits specified at the behavioral level have led to the emergence of commercial solutions in 2004, which are used for complex ASIC and FPGA design. Typical practical implementations of a logic function utilize a multi-level network of logic elements. Starting from an RTL description of a design, the synthesis tool constructs a corresponding multilevel Boolean network.

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Next, this network is optimized using several technology-independent techniques before technology-dependent optimizations are performed. Finally, technology-dependent optimization transforms the technology-independent circuit into a network of gates in a given technology. The simple cost estimates are replaced by more concrete, implementation-driven estimates during and after technology mapping. Electronic design automation: synthesis, verification, and test. View a machine-translated version of the German article. Machine translation like Deepl or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality.

If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. The Karnaugh map reduces the need for extensive calculations by taking advantage of humans’ pattern-recognition capability. It also permits the rapid identification and elimination of potential race conditions. Karnaugh maps are used to simplify real-world logic requirements so that they can be implemented using a minimum number of physical logic gates. Karnaugh maps are used to facilitate the simplification of Boolean algebra functions.

For example, consider the Boolean function described by the following truth table. K-map drawn on a torus, and in a plane. In three dimensions, one can bend a rectangle into a torus. In this time the four input variables can be combined in 16 different ways, so the truth table has 16 rows, and the K-map has 16 positions. Gray code rather than binary numerical order. Gray code ensures that only one variable changes between each pair of adjacent cells. Each cell of the completed Karnaugh map contains a binary digit representing the function’s output for that combination ofÀ inputs.