To programmed cell death

For the protein, see Programmed cell death protein 1. Necrosis is the death to programmed cell death a cell caused by external factors such as trauma or infection and occurs in several different forms.

Recently a form of programmed necrosis, called necroptosis, has been recognized as an alternative form of programmed cell death. Williams in 1964 in relation to insect tissue development, around eight years before “apoptosis” was coined. Since then, PCD has become the more general of these two terms. The first insight into the mechanism came from studying BCL2, the product of a putative oncogene activated by chromosome translocations often found in follicular lymphoma. PCD has been the subject of increasing attention and research efforts.

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Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in apoptosis. A critical regulator of autophagy induction is the kinase mTOR, which when activated, suppresses autophagy and when not activated promotes it. Autophagy and apoptosis are connected both positively and negatively, and extensive crosstalk exists between the two. Besides the above two types of PCD, other pathways have been discovered. Necroptosis is a programmed form of necrosis, or inflammatory cell death.

Conventionally, necrosis is associated with unprogrammed cell death resulting from cellular damage or infiltration by pathogens, in contrast to orderly, programmed cell death via apoptosis. Eryptosis is a form of suicidal erythrocyte death. Aponecrosis is a hybrid of apoptosis and necrosis and refers to an incomplete apoptotic process that is completed by necrosis. NETosis is the process of cell-death generated by NETs. Paraptosis is another type of nonapoptotic cell death that is mediated by MAPK through the activation of IGF-1.

It’s characterized by the intracellular formation of vacuoles and swelling of mitochondria. Pyroptosis, an inflammatory type of cell death, is uniquely mediated by caspase 1, an enzyme not involved in apoptosis, in response to infection by certain microorganisms. Plant cells undergo particular processes of PCD similar to autophagic cell death. However, some common features of PCD are highly conserved in both plants and metazoa. An atrophic factor is a force that causes a cell to die. Only natural forces on the cell are considered to be atrophic factors, whereas, for example, agents of mechanical or chemical abuse or lysis of the cell are considered not to be atrophic factors.