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Software engineering is the application of engineering to the development of software in a systematic method. When the first digital computers appeared in the early 1940s, the instructions to make them operate were wired into the machine. Practitioners quickly realized that this design was not flexible and came up with the “stored program architecture” or von Neumann architecture. Programming languages started to appear in the early 1950s and this was also another major step in abstraction.
The origins of the term “software engineering” have been attributed to various sources. Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. Watts Humphrey founded the SEI Software Process Program, aimed at understanding and managing the software engineering process. Software engineering can be divided into sub-disciplines. Software design: The process of defining the architecture, components, interfaces, and other characteristics of a system or component. It is also defined as the result of that process.
Software testing: An empirical, technical investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. Software maintenance: The totality of activities required to provide cost-effective support to software. Software development process: The definition, implementation, assessment, measurement, management, change, and improvement of the software life cycle process itself. Knowledge of computer programming is a prerequisite for becoming a software engineer. In addition to university education, many companies sponsor internships for students wishing to pursue careers in information technology. These internships can introduce the student to interesting real-world tasks that typical software engineers encounter every day. Similar experience can be gained through military service in software engineering.
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Legal requirements for the licensing or certification of professional software engineers vary around the world. In the UK, there is no licensing or legal requirement to assume or use the job title Software Engineer. The United States, since 2013, has offered an NCEES Professional Engineer exam for Software Engineering, thereby allowing Software Engineers to be licensed and recognized. NCEES will end the exam after April 2019 due to lack of participation.
The IEEE Computer Society and the ACM, the two main US-based professional organizations of software engineering, publish guides to the profession of software engineering. Employment of computer and information technology occupations is projected to grow 13 percent from 2016 to 2026, faster than the average for all occupations. Many software engineers work as employees or contractors. Some software engineers work for themselves as freelancers. Some organizations have specialists to perform each of the tasks in the software development process. Most software engineers and programmers work 40 hours a week, but about 15 percent of software engineers and 11 percent of programmers worked more than 50 hours a week in 2008.
The Software Engineering Institute offers certifications on specific topics like security, process improvement and software architecture. Broader certification of general software engineering skills is available through various professional societies. The initial impact of outsourcing, and the relatively lower cost of international human resources in developing third world countries led to a massive migration of software development activities from corporations in North America and Europe to India and later: China, Russia, and other developing countries. While global outsourcing has several advantages, global – and generally distributed – development can run into serious difficulties resulting from the distance between developers. Software engineering is a direct sub-field of engineering and has an overlap with computer science and management science . You can help by adding to it. In general, software engineering focuses more on techniques for the application of software development in industry, while computer science focuses more on algorithms and theory.
Software engineering sees its practitioners as individuals who follow well-defined engineering approaches to problem-solving. These approaches are specified in various software engineering books and research papers, always with the connotations of predictability, precision, mitigated risk and professionalism. Software engineering extends engineering and draws on the engineering model, i. The concept is so new that it is rarely understood, and it is widely misinterpreted, including in software engineering textbooks, papers, and among the communities of programmers and crafters.
One of the core issues in software engineering is that its approaches are not empirical enough because a real-world validation of approaches is usually absent, or very limited and hence software engineering is often misinterpreted as feasible only in a “theoretical environment. A number of these phenomena have been bundled under the name “Software Engineering”. As economics is known as “The Miserable Science”, software engineering should be known as “The Doomed Discipline”, doomed because it cannot even approach its goal since its goal is self-contradictory. What Every Engineer Should Know about Software Engineering.