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IBM mainframe operating systems to instruct the system on how to run a batch job or start a subsystem. They share some basic syntax rules and a few basic concepts, but are otherwise very different. Originally, mainframe systems were oriented toward batch processing. Many batch jobs require setup, with specific requirements for main storage, and dedicated devices such as magnetic tapes, private disk volumes, and printers set up with special forms.
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For both DOS and OS the unit of work is the job. A job consists of one or several steps, each of which is a request to run one specific program. Usually provides information to enable the computer services department to bill the appropriate user department. Defines how the job as a whole is to be run, e.
JCL for steps or groups of steps, inserted into a job. Procs are used for repeating steps which are used several times in one job, or in several different jobs. They save programmer time and reduce the risk of errors. To run a procedure one simply includes in the JCL file a single “card” which copies the procedure from a specified file, and inserts it into the jobstream. 360 were first used the main method of providing new input to a computer system was 80-column punched cards. It later became possible to submit jobs via disk or tape files with longer record lengths, but the operating system’s job submission components ignored everything after character 80. Strictly speaking both operating system families use only 71 characters per line.